Amgen announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved LUMAKRAS (sotorasib) for the treatment of adult patients with KRAS G12C-mutated locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as determined by an FDA-approved test, who have received at least one prior systemic therapy.
LUMAKRAS has received accelerated approval based on overall response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DoR). Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a confirmatory trial(s).
The FDA approval of LUMAKRAS is based on results from a subset of patients in CodeBreaK 100, the largest clinical trial conducted to date exclusively for patients with the KRAS G12C mutation. The trial demonstrated favorable efficacy and tolerability in 124 patients with KRAS G12C mutation-positive NSCLC who had disease progression after receiving an immunotherapy and/or chemotherapy. In the trial, 960 mg of LUMAKRAS administered orally once-daily demonstrated an ORR (a proportion of patients with ≥ 30% decrease in tumor) of 36% (95%) with 81% (95%) of patients achieving disease control (percentage of patients who have achieved complete response, partial response and stable disease for more than three months). The median DoR was 10 months. The most common adverse reactions (≥ 20%) were diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, fatigue, hepatotoxicity and cough. Adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of LUMAKRAS occurred in 9% of patients.
Bob T. Li, M.D., Ph.D., MPH, principal investigator at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, said, "Patients with non-small cell lung cancer who have progressed beyond first-line treatment face a poor prognosis and have limited treatment options available to them. Sotorasib delivers a new option for these patients, and it is the first KRAS-targeted therapy to be approved after nearly four decades of research."
NSCLC accounts for approximately 84% of the 2.2 million new lung cancer diagnoses each year worldwide, including approximately 236,000 new cases in the U.S. KRAS G12C is one of the most prevalent driver mutations in NSCLC, with about 13% of patients with non-squamous NSCLC in the U.S. having the KRAS G12C mutation.
About half of all patients with NSCLC harbor a targetable driver mutation, yet despite the integral role that biomarkers play in identifying patients who may benefit from targeted therapies, many patients are not tested.
Amgen has partnered with two companies—Guardant Health and QIAGEN—to develop blood- and tissue-based companion diagnostics (CDx), respectively, for LUMAKRAS. With the addition of these tests, patients and clinicians will have more options and flexibility for conducting KRAS G12C biomarker testing.
"Biomarker testing for patients with non-small cell lung cancer is critical because it informs a patient's treatment path with a personalized and tailored approach. The only way to identify the KRAS G12C mutation is to test for it, so I urge patients to ask their care teams about comprehensive biomarker testing. It is important that patients and their healthcare providers know that KRAS G12C is now an actionable mutation," said Andrea Ferris, president and CEO of LUNGevity.